Name: Richard John Gareth Evans
PhD: Archaeology and Ancient History
Thesis Title: A Most Dangerous Place: Finding the Non-Combatant within the Greek Polis (c. 800 BC – 31 BC)
This project will identify, during periods of inter-state war, the inviolable targets that existed as a political and legal reality for Greek city-states (poleis), from the archaic to early Roman periods (roughly c. 800 BC – AD 100).
It will ask how individuals and groups underwent differentiation during inter-state conflict. For each category of differentiation identified, we shall query if this provided inviolability during war, and, importantly, what the extent of these protections were. Furthermore, the development of these protections, from the archaic to the late Hellenistic period, will be examined carefully, to thereby examine when particular ideas of differentiation potentially came into practice.
Identifying differentiation and inviolability is not enough, however. To create a complete picture, consideration will be given to identifying on what authority inviolability was provided. Was it based upon unilateral enforcement or bilateral treaty? Was it ever written down, or was it based upon a customary legal system that was ‘agreed’ to by each polis through historical precedence? It is likely that the answer to these questions will be a mixed one, as international law is rarely a system that builds neatly around a single concept or is historically consistent.
The final consideration will be those who were partially differentiated, but not given inviolability during conflict (e.g. women, children, old men, slaves and foreigners). We shall explore the moral dimension of their vulnerability, which indicates that some Greeks were aware of the dilemma, but were not willing to push for these people to become legally inviolable. Why this vulnerable, intermediary class existed will be the subject of some discussion, which considers why they never achieved inviolability, but were still differentiated from combatants proper.
Supervisors and Institution(s):
Prof. Graham Shipley, University of Leicester (https://www2.le.ac.uk/departments/archaeology/people/academics/shipley)
Prof. Stephen Hodkinson, University of Nottingham (http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/classics/people/stephen.hodkinson)
Publications (please include full details with page nos. or web links):
- Reviewed 'Peace in the Ancient World: Concepts and Theories' for BMCR, 2017, Open Access: http://bmcr.brynmawr.edu/2017/2017-05-54.html
- Follow-up paper for conference volume (Hellenistic Peloponnese: New Perspectives) in preparation, (Due 2019)
- Paper for Edited Volume on Genocide in preparation (Due 2019)
- Paper on the longue durée of Greek International Law in preparation (in application)
Scholarly / Public Engagement Activities:
- Presented 'Rethinking Greek Ritual' at the 'Classical Association Annual Conference 2015', Bristol University, 10-13th April 2015 (Edinburgh and CA Funded)
- Attended the '15th Dorothy Buchan Memorial Lecture', University of Leicester, 10th November 2015
- Attended the '9th A. G. Leventis Conference in Greek', University of Edinburgh, 12-15th November 2015 (SDF Funded)
- Attended the 'Luxury and Wealth in the Archaic to Hellenistic Peloponnese Conference', University of Nottingham, 14-15th April 2016
- Attended the 'War in the Ancient World: The Economic Perspective Conference', University College London, 27-29th April 2016 (SDF Funded)
- Presented at the 'Hellenistic Peloponnese: New Perspectives Conference', University of Leicester, 6th May 2016
- Presented at the 'M3C Research Festival', Nottingham University, 12th May 2016
- Attended the 'Practical Epigraphy Workshop' in Oxford, 21-23rd June 2016. (SDF Funded)
- Co-organised (incl. Dr. Fiona McHardy and Dr. Susan Deacy) a research day concerning 'Ancient Female Violence' and presented 'Beyond Heroes and Villains: Considering Political Necessity and Strategy over Psychopathy', Roehampton University, 27th June 2016 (SDF Funded)
- Attended JACT's 'Greek and Latin Summer School Durham', 23-30th July 2016 (SDF Funded)
- Attended JACT's 'Greek Summer School' at Bryanston, 31st July - 13th August 2016 (SDF Funded)
- Presented 'Finding the Non-Combatant within the Greek Poleis' at 'The 2nd SAAH PhD Conference', University of Leicester, 18th November 2017
- Attended 'Preparing to Teach in Higher Education' short-course, University of Leicester, 2017
- Taught 6-Week Seminar Series for AH1008: Approaching Ancient Evidence - Greek, University of Leicester, 2017
- Taught 6-Week Seminar Series for AH1010: Introduction to Greek History, University of Leicester, 2017
- Assessed and provided feedback for Weekly Student Presentations in AH1010: Introduction to Greek History, 2017.
- Designed Seminar 6, 'Public Monuments', for AH1010, University of Leicester, 2017
- Presented 'Finding the Non-Combatant within the Greek Poleis' at the 'Classical Association Annual Conference (CA) 2017', University of Kent, 26-29th April 2017 (SDF Funded)
- Presented ''Finding the Non-combatant within the Greek Poleis' at the 'Midlands3Cities DTP Research Festival 2017', University of Leicester, 25th May 2017
Co-Organised 'Gender and Identities in Peloponnesian Antiquity', University of Nottingham, 22-23 June 2017, cf. http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/conference/fac-arts/humanities/archaeology/gender-and-identity/index.aspx
Presented 'What’s in a Talthybiadae?: Studying the Lacedaemonian Heralds, understanding Laconian identity' at the 'Gender and Identities in Peloponnesian Antiquity', University of Nottingham, 22-23rd June 2017
Presented 'Greek Non-Combatants during Inter-State Conflict' at the International Ancient Warfare Conference (IAWC)', National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth, 28-30th June 2017 (SDF Funded)
- Attended JACT's 'Greek and Latin Summer School Durham', 22-29th July 2017 (SDF Funded)
Attended JACT's 'Greek Summer School' at Bryanston, 31st July - 12th August 2017 (SDF Funded)
Presented 'Unmaking and Remaking Greek International Law: How the Use of International Law can Reveal New Interpretations of the Greek's Laws of War' at the 'Building Cohesion and Unity: Combining Approaches to the Study of the Past' conference, University of Nottingham, 2nd December 2017.
- Attended M3C and Royal Literary Fund residential writing retreat, at Shepherds Dene Retreat House, Northumberland, 21-26th January, 2018
- Taught 6-Week Seminar Series for AH1010: Introduction to Greek History, University of Leicester, 2018
- Assessed and provided feedback for Weekly Student Presentations in AH1010: Introduction to Greek History, 2018.
- Designed and Taught Lecture and Seminar 'Sparta: War and Peace' for AH3015: Sparta and the Greek World, University of Leicester, 2018.
- Co-Taught Source-Material Workshop for AH3001: The Greek World after Alexander, University of Leicester, 2018.
- Presented 'Between Unwritten and Written Law; How the Greek Polis Developed a Working Inter-State Legal System, c. 800-146 BC' at the 'Law and Empire in the Longue Durée' conference, University of Cambridge, Downing College, 23-24th March 2018 (SDF Funded)
- Presented 'Neither Civilian nor Soldier: Placing Women into the Legal Framework of Greek Inter-state Conflict' at the Classical Association Conference, University of Leicester, 6-9th April 2018 (SDF Funded)
- Undertook M3C funded 'PhD & Beyond: PRINCE2® Foundation Workshop and Qualification', University of Leicester, 23-25th April, 2018.
- Presented 'Anything But Genocide: The Inherent Problems of Genocide Scholarship within the Ancient World' for the Stanley Burton Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, The University of Leicester, 2018.
- Began 'A History of Sparta in 20 Objects and Places' Placement Self-Designed Project, The University of Nottingham, Sept-Dec 2018. (Placement funded by M3C, SDF).
- Taught 6-Week Seminar Series for AH1008: Approaching Ancient Evidence - Greek, University of Leicester, 2019.
- Marked 'Weekly Skills Practice' papers for AH1008, which count towards 30% of the module mark, University of Leicester, 2019.
- Designed marking scheme for Seminar 6, 'Public Monuments' of AH1008, University of Leicester, 2019.
- Taught 7-Week Seminar Series for AH1010: Introduction to Greek History, University of Leicester, 2019.
- Assessed and provided feedback for Weekly Student Presentations in AH1010: Introduction to Greek History, 2019.
Other Research Interests:
- Ancient Agriculture (incl. Agricultural Warfare)
- Horticulture and Botany (incl. Viticulture)
- Ancient Economics (esp. Economic Warfare)
- Ancient International Relations
- Ancient Genocide Theory
- Ritual Theory
- Violence Theory
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